Data fabrication / data falsification
Data fabrication: This concerns the making up of research findings.
Data falsification: Data falsification means manipulation of research data with an intention of giving false information, and it can be manipulation of images, removing outliers or inconvenient results. Also changing micrographs, gels and radiological images in a incorrect way and adding or omitting data points from a research will be treated as data falsification.
To improve the readability of an image, technical tools can be used, but manipulation of images such as adjusting and contrasting the brightness and using colour balance tools can be an example of data manipulation. Such manipulation done by the author(s) should be notified in the cover letter to the editor of the AIMDR Journal, during the submission of the paper or article. If the editorial board including our guest editors found any questionable images embedded or used in an article then authors will be requested to submit the original data with evidences.
Recommended action by COPE for Journal Editors:
For more information on image manipulation, please check the Digital Images and Misconduct policy of the Council of Science Editors (CSE).